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Writing a private voting smart contract in

In this tutorial we will go through writing a very simple private voting smart contract in You will learn about private functions, public functions, composability between them, state management and creatively using nullifiers to prevent people from voting twice!

We will build this:

  • The contract will be initialized with an admin, stored publicly
  • A voter can vote privately, which will call a public function and update the votes publicly
  • The admin can end the voting period, which is a public boolean

To keep things simple, we won't create ballots or allow for delegate voting.


  • You have followed the quickstart to install aztec-nargo and aztec-sandbox.
  • Running Aztec Sandbox

Set up a project

First, create a new contract project with aztec-nargo.

aztec-nargo new --contract private_voting

Your file structure should look something like this:

| | |--private_voting
| | | |--src
| | | | |
| | | |--Nargo.toml

The file will soon turn into our smart contract!

We will need the Aztec library to create this contract. In your Nargo.toml you should see [dependencies] - paste this below it.

aztec = { git="", tag="aztec-packages-v0.42.0", directory="noir-projects/aztec-nr/aztec" }

Initiate the contract and define imports

Go to and delete the sample code. Replace it with this contract initialization:

contract Voting {


This defines a contract called Voter. Everything will sit inside this block.

Inside this, paste these imports:

use dep::aztec::prelude::{
AztecAddress, FunctionSelector, NoteHeader, NoteInterface, NoteGetterOptions, PrivateContext,
Map, PublicMutable, SharedImmutable
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

We are using various utils within the Aztec library:

  • Context and PrivateContext - exposes things such as the contract address, msg_sender, etc
  • AztecAddress - A type for storing an address on Aztec
  • FunctionSelector - Used for computing a selector to call a function
  • Map - A data storage type for storing candidates with the number of votes they have
  • PublicMutable - A type of storage, which holds a mutable public value. We'll store votes as PublicMutables

Set up storage

Under these imports, we need to set up our contract storage. Define the storage struct like so:

struct Storage {
admin: PublicMutable<AztecAddress>, // admin can end vote
tally: Map<Field, PublicMutable<Field>>, // we will store candidate as key and number of votes as value
vote_ended: PublicMutable<bool>, // vote_ended is boolean
active_at_block: SharedImmutable<u32>, // when people can start voting
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

In this contract, we will store three vars:

  1. admin, as an Aztec address held in public state
  2. tally, as a map with key as the persona and value as the number (in Field) held in public state
  3. vote_ended, as a boolean held in public state


The next step is to initialize the contract with a constructor. The constructor will take an address as a parameter and set the admin.

#[aztec(initializer)] // annotation to mark function as a constructor
fn constructor(admin: AztecAddress) {
storage.active_at_block.initialize(context.block_number() as u32);
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

This function takes the admin argument and writes it to the storage. We are also using this function to set the vote_ended boolean as false in the same way.

Casting a vote privately

For the sake of simplicity, we will have three requirements:

  1. Everyone with an Aztec account gets a vote
  2. They can only vote once in this contract
  3. Who they are is private, but their actual vote is not

To ensure someone only votes once, we will create a nullifier as part of the function call. If they try to vote again, the function will revert as it creates the same nullifier again, which can't be added to the nullifier tree (as that indicates a double spend).

Create a private function called cast_vote:

#[aztec(private)] // annotation to mark function as private and expose private context
fn cast_vote(candidate: Field) {
// Below, we make sure to get our nullifier public key at a specific block. By pinning the nullifier public key at a specific block,
// rotating keys will have no effect on the nullifier being produced, and voting again after will fail because the same nullifier is computed each time the user votes.
let header_at_active_at_block = context.get_header_at(storage.active_at_block.read_private());
let msg_sender_npk_m_hash = header_at_active_at_block.get_npk_m_hash(&mut context, context.msg_sender());

let secret = context.request_nsk_app(msg_sender_npk_m_hash); // get secret key of caller of function
let nullifier = dep::std::hash::pedersen_hash([context.msg_sender().to_field(), secret]); // derive nullifier from sender and secret
context.push_new_nullifier(nullifier, 0); // push nullifier
EasyPrivateVoting::at(context.this_address()).add_to_tally_public(candidate).enqueue(&mut context);
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

In this function, we do not create a nullifier with the address directly. This would leak privacy as it would be easy to reverse-engineer. We must add some randomness or some form of secret, like nullifier secrets.

To do this, we make an oracle call to fetch the caller's secret key, hash it to create a nullifier, and push the nullifier to Aztec. The secret.high and secret.low values here refer to how we divide a large Grumpkin scalar value into its higher and lower parts. This allows for faster cryptographic computations so our hash can still be secure but is calculated faster.

After pushing the nullifier, we update the tally to reflect this vote. As we know from before, a private function cannot update public state directly, so we are calling a public function.

Create this new public function like this:

fn add_to_tally_public(candidate: Field) {
assert( == false, "Vote has ended"); // assert that vote has not ended
let new_tally = + 1;;
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

The first thing we do here is assert that the vote has not ended.

assert() takes two arguments: the assertion, in this case that storage.vote_ended is not false, and the error thrown if the assertion fails.

The code after the assertion will only run if the assertion is true. In this snippet, we read the current vote tally at the voteId, add 1 to it, and write this new number to the voteId. The Field element allows us to use + to add to an integer.


Note that due to key rotation, it would be possible for a user to rotate their nullifier secret key and be able to vote again. Refer to common patterns for more information

Getting the number of votes

We will create a function that anyone can call that will return the number of votes at a given vote Id. Paste this in your contract:

unconstrained fn get_vote(candidate: Field) -> pub Field {
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

We set it as unconstrained and do not annotate it because it is only reading from state. You can read more about unconstrained functions here.

Allowing an admin to end a voting period

To ensure that only an admin can end a voting period, we can use another assert() statement.

Paste this function in your contract:

fn end_vote() {
assert(, "Only admin can end votes"); // assert that caller is admin
Source code: noir-projects/noir-contracts/contracts/easy_private_voting_contract/src/

Here, we are asserting that the msg_sender() is equal to the admin stored in public state. We have to create an AztecAddress type from the msg_sender() in order to do a direct comparison.

Compiling and deploying

The easiest way to compile the contract is with aztec-nargo. Run the following command in the directory with your Nargo.toml file:

aztec-nargo compile

This will create a new directory called target and a JSON artifact inside it.

Once it is compiled you can deploy.

aztec-builder target -o src/artifacts

Once it is compiled you can deploy it to the sandbox. This is out of scope for this tutorial but you can learn how to do this in the Aztec.js getting-started guide.

Next steps

Now you have learned the foundations of Aztec smart contracts, you can start to play around with some more advanced features. Some ideas:

  • Add some more features into this contract, like the admin can distribute votes, people can delegate their votes, or voteIds can have more data like names, descriptions, etc
  • Create a frontend for this contract using Aztec.js.
  • Go to the next tutorial and learn how to write a token contract