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Rollup Circuits


Together with the validating light node, the rollup circuits must ensure that incoming blocks are valid, that state is progressed correctly, and that anyone can rebuild the state.

To support this, we construct a single proof for the entire block, which is then verified by the validating light node. This single proof consist of three main components: It has two sub-trees for transactions, and one tree for L1 to L2 messages. The two transaction trees are then merged into a single proof and combined with the roots of the message tree to form the final proof and output. Each of these trees are built by recursively combining proofs from a lower level of the tree. This structure allows us to keep the workload of each individual proof small, while making it very parallelizable. This works very well for the case where we want many actors to be able to participate in the proof generation.

Note that we have two different types of "merger" circuits, depending on what they are combining.

For transactions we have:

  • The merge rollup
    • Merges two base rollup proofs OR two merge rollup proofs
  • The root rollup
    • Merges two merge rollup proofs

And for the message parity we have:

  • The root_parity circuit
    • Merges N root or base_parity proofs
  • The base_parity circuit
    • Merges N l1 to l2 messages in a subtree

In the diagram the size of the tree is limited for demonstration purposes, but a larger tree would have more layers of merge rollups proofs. Circles mark the different types of proofs, while squares mark the different circuit types.

To understand what the circuits are doing and what checks they need to apply it is useful to understand what data is going into the circuits and what data is coming out.

Below is a figure of the data structures thrown around for the block proof creation. Note that the diagram does not include much of the operations for kernels, but mainly the data structures that are used for the rollup circuits.


Note that the CombinedAccumulatedData contains elements that we won't be using throughout the rollup circuits. However, as the data is used for the kernel proofs (when it is build recursively), we will include it here anyway.

Since the diagram can be quite overwhelming, we will go through the different data structures and what they are used for along with the three (3) different rollup circuits.

Higher-level tasks

Before looking at the circuits individually, it can however be a good idea to recall the reason we had them in the first place. For this, we are especially interested in the tasks that span multiple circuits and proofs.

State consistency

While the individual kernels are validated on their own, they might rely on state changes earlier in the block. For the block to be correctly validated, this means that when validating kernel nn, it must be executed on top of the state after all kernels <n<n have been applied. For example, when kernel 33 is executed, it must be executed on top of the state after kernels 00, 11 and 22 have been applied. If this is not the case, the kernel proof might be valid, but the state changes invalid which could lead to double spends.

It is therefore of the highest importance that the circuits ensure that the state is progressed correctly across circuit types and proofs. Logically, taking a few of the kernels from the above should be executed/proven as shown below, knk_n applied on top of the state that applied kn1k_{n-1}

State availability

To ensure that state is made available, we could broadcast all of a block's input data as public inputs of the final root rollup proof, but a proof with so many public inputs would be very expensive to verify onchain.

Instead, we can reduce the number of public inputs by committing to the block's body and iteratively "build" up the commitment at each rollup circuit iteration. At the very end, we will have a commitment to the transactions that were included in the block (TxsHash), the messages that were sent from L2 to L1 (OutHash) and the messages that were sent from L1 to L2 (InHash).

To check that the body is published an Aztec node can simply reconstruct the hashes from available data. Since we define finality as the point where the block is validated and included in the state of the validating light node, we can define a block as being "available" if the validating light node can reconstruct the commitment hashes.

Since the InHash is directly computed by the Inbox contract on L1, the data is obviously available to the contract without doing any more work. Furthermore, the OutHash is a computed from a subset of the data in TxsHash so if it is possible to reconstruct TxsHash it is also possible to reconstruct OutHash.

Since we strive to minimize the compute requirements to prove blocks, we amortize the commitment cost across the full tree. We can do so by building merkle trees of partial "commitments", whose roots are ultimately computed in the final root rollup circuit. Below, we outline the TxsHash merkle tree that is based on the TxEffects and a OutHash which is based on the l2_to_l1_msgs (cross-chain messages) for each transaction. While the TxsHash implicitly includes the OutHash we need it separately such that it can be passed to the Outbox for consumption by the portals with minimal work.

While the TxsHash merely require the data to be published and known to L1, the InHash and OutHash needs to be computable on L1 as well. This reason require them to be efficiently computable on L1 while still being non-horrible inside a snark - leading us to rely on SHA256.

Next Steps

📄️ Root Rollup

The root rollup circuit is our top circuit, it applies the state changes passed through its children and the cross-chain messages. Essentially, it is the last step that allows us to prove that the state transition function $\mathcal(S, B) \mapsto S'$ was applied correctly for a state $S$ and a block $B$. Note, that the root rollup circuit's public inputs do not comprise the block entirely as it would be too costly to verify. Given a ProvenBlock and proof a node can derive the public inputs and validate the correctness of the state progression.