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Wonky Tree

A 'wonky' tree is an append-only unbalanced merkle tree, filled from left to right. It is used to construct rollup proofs without padding empty transactions.

For example, using a balanced merkle tree to rollup 5 transactions requires padding of 3 empty transactions:

Where each node marked with * indicates a circuit proving entirely empty information. While the above structure does allow us to easily construct balanced trees later on consisting of out_hashes and tx_effects_hashes, it will lead to wasted compute and higher block processing costs unless we provide a number of transactions equal to a power of 2.

Our wonky tree implementation instead gives the below structure for 5 transactions:

Here, each circuit is proving useful transaction information with no wasted compute. We can construct a tree like this one for any number of transactions by greedy filling from left to right. Given the required 5 base circuits:

...we theh pair these base circuits up to form merges:

Since we have an odd number of transactions, we cannot pair up the final base. Instead, we continue to pair the next layers until we reach a layer with an odd number of members. In this example, that's when we reach merge 2:

Once paired, the base layer has length 4, the next merge layer has 2, and the final merge layer has 1. After reaching a layer with odd length, the orchestrator can now pair base 4:

Since we have processed all base circuits, this final pair will be input to a root circuit.

Filling from left to right means that we can easily reconstruct the tree only from the number of transactions n. The above method ensures that the final tree is a combination of balanced subtrees of descending size. The widths of these subtrees are given by the decomposition of n into powers of 2. For example, 5 transactions:

Subtrees: [4, 1] ->
left_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[0..4])
right_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[4]) = txs[4]
root = left_subtree_root | right_subtree_root

For 31 transactions:

Subtrees: [16, 8, 4, 2, 1] ->
Merge D: left_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[0..16])
right_subtree_root = Subtrees: [8, 4, 2, 1] --> {
Merge C: left_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[16..24])
right_subtree_root = Subtrees: [4, 2, 1] --> {
Merge B: left_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[24..28])
right_subtree_root = Subtrees: [2, 1] --> {
Merge A: left_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[28..30])
right_subtree_root = balanced_tree(txs[30]) = txs[30]
Merge 0: root = left_subtree_root | right_subtree_root
Merge 1: root = left_subtree_root | right_subtree_root
Merge 2: root = left_subtree_root | right_subtree_root
root = left_subtree_root | right_subtree_root

An unrolled recursive algorithm is not the easiest thing to read. This diagram represents the 31 transactions rolled up in our wonky structure, where each Merge <num> is a 'subroot' above:

The tree is reconstructed to check the txs_effects_hash (= the root of a wonky tree given by leaves of each tx's tx_effects) on L1. We also reconstruct it to provide a membership path against the stored out_hash (= the root of a wonky tree given by leaves of each tx's L2 to L1 message tree root) for consuming a L2 to L1 message.

Currently, this tree is built via the orchestrator given the number of transactions to rollup (this.totalNumTxs). Each 'node' is assigned a level (0 at the root) and index in that level. The below function finds the parent level:

  // Calculates the index and level of the parent rollup circuit
public findMergeLevel(currentLevel: bigint, currentIndex: bigint) {
const moveUpMergeLevel = (levelSize: number, index: bigint, nodeToShift: boolean) => {
levelSize /= 2;
if (levelSize & 1) {
[levelSize, nodeToShift] = nodeToShift ? [levelSize + 1, false] : [levelSize - 1, true];
index >>= 1n;
return { thisLevelSize: levelSize, thisIndex: index, shiftUp: nodeToShift };
let [thisLevelSize, shiftUp] = this.totalNumTxs & 1 ? [this.totalNumTxs - 1, true] : [this.totalNumTxs, false];
const maxLevel = this.numMergeLevels + 1n;
let placeholder = currentIndex;
for (let i = 0; i < maxLevel - currentLevel; i++) {
({ thisLevelSize, thisIndex: placeholder, shiftUp } = moveUpMergeLevel(thisLevelSize, placeholder, shiftUp));
let thisIndex = currentIndex;
let mergeLevel = currentLevel;
while (thisIndex >= thisLevelSize && mergeLevel != 0n) {
mergeLevel -= 1n;
({ thisLevelSize, thisIndex, shiftUp } = moveUpMergeLevel(thisLevelSize, thisIndex, shiftUp));
return [mergeLevel - 1n, thisIndex >> 1n, thisIndex & 1n];

For example, Base 4 above starts with level = 3 and index = 4. Since we have an odd number of transactions at this level, thisLevelSize is set to 4 with shiftUp = true.

The while loop triggers and shifts up our node to level = 2 and index = 2. This level (containing Merge 0 and Merge 1) is of even length, so the loop continues. The next iteration shifts up to level = 1 and index = 1 - we now have an odd level, so the loop stops. The actual position of Base 4 is therefore at level = 1 and index = 1. This function returns the parent level of the input node, so we return level = 0, index = 0, correctly indicating that the parent of Base 4 is the root.

Flexible wonky trees

We can also encode the structure of any binary merkle tree by tracking number_of_branches and number_of_leaves for each node in the tree. This encoding was originally designed for logs before they were included in the txs_effects_hash, so the below explanation references the leaves stored in relation to logs and transactions.

The benefit of this method as opposed to the one above is allowing for any binary structure and therefore allowing for 'skipping' leaves with no information. However, the encoding grows as the tree grows, by at least 2 bytes per node. The above implementation only requires the number of leaves to be encoded, which will likely only require a single field to store.


  1. The encoded logs data of a transaction is a flattened array of all logs data within the transaction:

    tx_logs_data = [number_of_logs, ...log_data_0, ...log_data_1, ...]

  2. The encoded logs data of a block is a flatten array of a collection of the above tx_logs_data, with hints facilitating hashing replay in a binary tree structure:

    block_logs_data = [number_of_branches, number_of_transactions, ...tx_logs_data_0, ...tx_logs_data_1, ...]

    • number_of_transactions is the number of leaves in the left-most branch, restricted to either 1 or 2.
    • number_of_branches is the depth of the parent node of the left-most leaf.

Here is a step-by-step example to construct the block_logs_data:

  1. A rollup, R01, merges two transactions: tx0 containing tx_logs_data_0, and tx1 containing tx_logs_data_1:

    block_logs_data: [0, 2, ...tx_logs_data_0, ...tx_logs_data_1]

    Where 0 is the depth of the node R01, and 2 is the number of aggregated tx_logs_data of R01.

  2. Another rollup, R23, merges two transactions: tx3 containing tx_logs_data_3, and tx2 without any logs:

    block_logs_data: [0, 1, ...tx_logs_data_3]

    Here, the number of aggregated tx_logs_data is 1.

  3. A rollup, RA, merges the two rollups R01 and R23:

    block_logs_data: [1, 2, ...tx_logs_data_0, ...tx_logs_data_1, 0, 1, ...tx_logs_data_3]

    The result is the block_logs_data of R01 concatenated with the block_logs_data of R23, with the number_of_branches of R01 incremented by 1. The updated value of number_of_branches (0 + 1) is also the depth of the node R01.

  4. A rollup, RB, merges the above rollup RA and another rollup R45:

    block_logs_data: [2, 2, ...tx_logs_data_0, ...tx_logs_data_1, 0, 1, ...tx_logs_data_3, 0, 2, ...tx_logs_data_4, ...tx_logs_data_5]

    The result is the concatenation of the block_logs_data from both rollups, with the number_of_branches of the left-side rollup, RA, incremented by 1.


Upon receiving a proof and its encoded logs data, the entity can ensure the correctness of the provided block_logs_data by verifying that the accumulated_logs_hash in the proof can be derived from it:

const accumulated_logs_hash = compute_accumulated_logs_hash(block_logs_data);
assert(accumulated_logs_hash == proof.accumulated_logs_hash);
assert(block_logs_data.accumulated_logs_length == proof.accumulated_logs_length);

function compute_accumulated_logs_hash(logs_data) {
const number_of_branches = logs_data.read_u32();

const number_of_transactions = logs_data.read_u32();
let res = hash_tx_logs_data(logs_data);
if number_of_transactions == 2 {
res = hash(res, hash_tx_logs_data(logs_data));

for (let i = 0; i < number_of_branches; ++i) {
const res_right = compute_accumulated_logs_hash(logs_data);
res = hash(res, res_right);

return res;

function hash_tx_logs_data(logs_data) {
const number_of_logs = logs_data.read_u32();
let res = hash_log_data(logs_data);
for (let i = 1; i < number_of_logs; ++i) {
const log_hash = hash_log_data(logs_data);
res = hash(res, log_hash);
return res;